Yes, ovulation occurs before conception. However, sperm can live for several days in a hospitable environment (such as the vagina), so if ovulation occurs say a couple of days after intercourse, it is still possible for pregnancy to occur. You might find this article helpful; it's pretty much everything you ever wanted to know about how reproduction works.
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Seprm can remain viable inside a woman's body for five to seven days. So, yes: having unprotected sex a few days before ovulation is an incredibly high pregnancy risk. It's advised to women who are trying to conceive to start having sex just then through the day of ovulation, as a point of fat.
And yes: ovulation has to happen before conception can. There must be a viable and available egg, and generally the correct kind of cervical mucus, for fertilation, and then implantation and thus, conception, to occur.
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